NATO Science for Peace

SfP 977998 - Elastic Materials

Novel Highly Elastic Magnetic Materials for Dampers and Seals

Date of Approval: 04 February, 2002

Duration: 3 years, expected completion by April, 2005


 NATO Country 
Project Director (NPD):            Prof. Dr. M. Zrinyi
                                                     Budapest University of 
                                                     Technology and Economics,
                                                     Budapest, Hungary

Partner Country 
Project Co-Director (PPD):      Dr. E.Yu. Kramarenko
                                                     Nesmeyanov Institute of 
                                                     Organoelement Compounds, 
                                                     Russian Academy of Sciences, 
                                                     Moscow, Russia

Partner Country 
Project Co-Director 2:              Dr. L.V. Nikitin
                                                     Physics Department, 
                                                     Moscow State University,
                                                     Moscow, Russia

Partner Country 
Project Co-Director 3:               Prof. A.I. Gorbunov
                                                      Institute of Chemistry and 
                                                     Technology of Organoelement 
                                                     Moscow, Russia

End-user:                                    Dr. B.E. Kozhevnikov
                                                     State Experimental Plant 
                                                     of the Institute of Chemistry 
                                                     and Technology of 
                                                     Organoelement Compounds, 
                                                     Moscow, Russia

Background and Objectives

The aim of this project is the development of a new group of "smart" or intelligent materials, i.e. materials capable to follow small change of external conditions in a preset way. The project also includes the elaboration and technical realization of two industrial applications for such materials. The relatively simple devices aimed to construct will demonstrate the new materials potential for many other purposes.
     The proposed materials have been synthesized recently for the first time by both the Hungarian and Russian groups participating in the present project. They represent a new type of composites consisting of small magnetic particles dispersed within a highly elastic polymeric matrix. Combination of magnetic and elastic properties leads to the appearance of the unique ability of such materials to change their shape and mechanical properties in an applied magnetic field in a reversible manner. 
     Highly elastic magnetic composites are quite new. Understanding their behavior as a function of the composition, external conditions and synthesis processes is still missing. Thus, one of the aims of this project is the study of fundamental principles governing the preparation, structure, and properties of these materials.
     The preliminary studies show that among the most appealing properties of the new composites are giant magneto-deformational effect, high elasticity and quick response to magnetic field which open new opportunities for using such materials for various applications, ranging from magnetic coupling to peristaltic pumps, manipulators or "artificial muscles".
     To demonstrate the engineering potential of these new materials, two types of devices will be constructed, produced, tested and advertised. First, we propose to develop a new type of seals fundamentally different from those used before. In the simplest case the sealing assembly includes a magnetoelastic strip and a permanent magnet. They attract due to the magnetic forces. This ensures that due to high elasticity of the proposed composites and good adhesion properties, the strip of magnetoelastics will perfectly adopt the shape of the surface to be sealed leading to excellent sealing.
     Another straightforward application of the magnetic composites which will be implemented in the course of this project is based on their magnetic field dependent elastic modulus. Namely, we plan to develop adjustable vibration dampers on the basis of the new materials that are of high demand in many industrial applications. 

The main results expected at the end of this project are the following:

  • The extensive investigation (by experimental methods, theoretical calculations and computer simulations) of the properties of the magnetoelastic materials depending on their composition and the processes of synthesis. The results of these studies will permit to synthesise materials with optimum properties for seals and vibration dampers working in several liquid and gaseous media and under various mechanical stresses; the optimum technological parameters will be established; 
  • The development of the technology of low-cost industrial production of highly elastic magnetic materials. The technologies developed will be adopted by industry in the plant of the end-user;
  • The development of the devices based on the materials synthesised. It is expected that the unique properties of these materials could find wide applications in industry and they will be advertised for other Russian factories.

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